European higher education systems have been affected very differently, to some extent reflecting the general impact on their respective national economies. They have also been affected at different stages of the crisis; some already back in 2009 while others have so far not yet been affected directly.
Currently, most universities report feeling uncertainty about the future and expect the situation to change, with further impacts from 2010 onwards.
In the forthcoming years, possible causes for concern could stem from government policies, such as increases in the VAT, which could increase universities’ costs. A (EURO) currency crisis could also be a potential threat in Eurozone countries, especially where universities make large purchases in foreign currencies, which could trigger additional costs.